In spite of decades of work it has remained unclear whether or not superradiant quantum phases, referred to here as photon condensates, can occur in equilibrium. In this Rapid Communication, we first show that when a nonrelativistic quantum many-body system is coupled to a cavity field, gauge invariance forbids photon condensation. We then present a microscopic theory of the cavity quantum electrodynamics of an extended Falicov-Kimball model, showing that, in agreement with the general theorem, its insulating ferroelectric and exciton condensate phases are not altered by the cavity and do not support photon condensation.
American Physical Society
18 Sep 2019
Volume: 100 Issue: 12 Pages: 121109
Physical Review B