In highly viscous electron systems such as high-quality graphene above liquid nitrogen temperature, a linear response to applied electric current becomes essentially nonlocal, which can give rise to a number of new and counterintuitive phenomena including negative nonlocal resistance and current whirlpools. It has also been shown that, although both effects originate from high electron viscosity, a negative voltage drop does not principally require current backflow. In this work, we study the role of geometry on viscous flow and show that confinement effects and relative positions of injector and collector contacts play a pivotal role in the occurrence of whirlpools. Certain geometries may exhibit backflow at arbitrarily small values of the electron viscosity, whereas others require a specific threshold value for whirlpools to emerge.
American Physical Society
11 Oct 2016
Volume: 94 Issue: 15 Pages: 155414
Physical Review B