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In this work we describe the Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV) electrochemical technique for the determination of lead (Pb2+) and cadmium (Cd2+) metal ions at concentration of sub-part per billion (ppb) in aqueous solution. Moreover, simple and low-cost procedures for the fabrication of high performance working nano-electrode are reported. The electrode structure consists of a graphene paper (GP) 240 μm thick with the function of electrical conductor and substrate, a layer of nafion 0.5-0.7 μm thick onto the graphene paper and bismuth nanoparticles embedded in the nafion thin layer. The bismuth nanoparticles were fabricated by electrodeposition starting from Bi(III) ions, employing a key step of hydrogen ions of nafion H+ exchange with bismuth ions Bi(III). This procedure is aimed to improve the bismuth nanoparticles concentration. The SWASV applied to the low-cost nanoelectrode allows …
Publication date: 
14 Jan 2021

Antonino Scandurra, Salvo Mirabella

Biblio References: 
IEEE Sensors Journal