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Co-doping with fluorine is a potentially promising method for defect passivation to increase the donor electrical activation in highly doped n-type germanium. However, regular high dose donor-fluorine co-implants, followed by conventional thermal treatment of the germanium, typically result in a dramatic loss of the fluorine, as a result of the extremely large diffusivity at elevated temperatures, partly mediated by the solid phase epitaxial regrowth. To circumvent this problem, we propose and experimentally demonstrate two non-amorphizing co-implantation methods; one involving consecutive, low dose fluorine implants, intertwined with rapid thermal annealing and the second, involving heating of the target wafer during implantation. Our study confirms that the fluorine solubility in germanium is defect-mediated and we reveal the extent to which both of these strategies can be effective in retaining large fractions of both …
AIP Publishing LLC
Publication date: 
28 Apr 2018

Corentin Monmeyran, Iain F Crowe, Russell M Gwilliam, Christopher Heidelberger, Enrico Napolitani, David Pastor, Hemi H Gandhi, Eric Mazur, Jürgen Michel, Anuradha M Agarwal, Lionel C Kimerling

Biblio References: 
Volume: 123 Issue: 16 Pages: 161524
Journal of Applied Physics