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The laboratory is dedicated to perform the measurements necessary for verification of process steps and to evaluate the electrical performances on test structures and devices at wafer level. Both manual and automatic systems are available.




Electrical Characterization 

BioRad HL5560 specifications:

Minimum carrier density: 2x1011cm-2.

Hall Mobility range: 0.1÷3x103cm2/Vs.

Sheet resistance range: 0.5÷1x105Ω/sq.

Contact resistance lower than 105Ω.

Temperature range: 3.5÷500 K.

Low current (10-12 A) to measure very high resistances (1012 Ω/sq).

C-V, IG-VGS, ID-VGS, flat-band voltage, threshold voltage, transconductance, dielectric thickness, doping concentration, effective charges, interface state, defect density, conduction mechanisms, resistivity, mobility, stress induced leakage current, hot carrier injection, effective channel length and width are measured at room temperature by a SUSS PMF8 failure analysis 8" probe station connected to an Agilent 4284A LCR meter and to a Keithley 4200-SCS (Semiconductor Characterization System) configured with two remote PreAmps for low current measurements.


M-2000 spectroscopic ellipsometer by Woollam

It is engineered to meet the diverse demands of thin film characterization. An advanced optical design, wide spectral range, and fast data acquisition combine in an extremely powerful and versatile tool. Measurements covers the spectral range from deep ultraviolet (193 nm) to near infrared (1690 nm). The use of a CCD (Charge Coupled Device) detector allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of wavelengths.

The system is also equipped with an automatic mapping stage, able to automatically mapping films up to 8" in diameter.

The M-2000 is commonly used to measure thin film thickness and optical constants of materials. It is sensitive to less than a monolayer of material (sub-nm) on a surface.

The ellipsometer is mainly linked to the atomic layer deposition (ALD) machine installed in the same laboratory, and that is mainly used for synthesizing materials for water treatment. Anyway the ellipsometer can be used for any research activities.


Contact person: Dott.ssa Giuliana Impellizzeri


LAMBDA 45 UV/Vis spectrophotometer

It is equipped with an halogen lamp for measurements in the VIS region and a deuterium lamp for measurements in the UV region. It operates in a range of 190 - 1100 nm with a resolution of ± 0.1 nm. The bandwidth is in the range of 0.5 - 4 nm, with a speed scan between 7.5 and 2880 nm/min.

LAMBDA 45 is a spectrophotometer for measurements of liquids samples, regulatory tests requiring variable resolution, and highly light-scattering samples. The additional pre-monochromator reduces stray light by a factor of 2, providing optimum performance for turbid and light-scattering samples, such as some biological solutions and suspensions.

The spectrophotometer can operate in scanning mode, wavelength program, time-drive, rate, quant and scanning quant.

The spectrophotometer is particularly suited to investigate the photocatalytic properties of nanostructures by the degradation of organic dyes and DNA/RNA analysis, the detection of biomolecules and to evaluate the concentration of bacterial samples.


Contact person: dott.ssa Giuliana Impellizzeri

30 KV Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope

Gemini Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) Carl Zeiss SUPRA™ 25

A Gemini Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) Carl Zeiss SUPRA™ 25 is equipped with  (i) an EDAX Energy Dispersive X-Rays (EDX) detector, (ii) a Gemini multi-mode scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) detection system and (iii) a Gatan MonoCL4™ system for  cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy.

SEM Resolution: 1.7 nm @ 15 kV

                            3.5 nm @ 1 kV

Acceleration Voltage: 0.5 - 30 kV

Probe Current: 4 pA - 10 nA

Detectors: High efficiency In-lens detector

                 Secondary electrons detector

                 STEM detector

 EDX microanalysis detector for         imaging/mapping and X-Rays Spectroscopy

CL system for Panchromatic and Monochromatic imaging and Spectroscopy (Spectral response 185- 850 nm)

FE-SEM is used to investigate morphology, chemical and optical properties of thin films and nano powders.


Contact person: Dott.ssa Simona Boninelli

Optical Characterization Laboratory

The Optical characterization Laboratory is equipped for photo- and electro-luminescence measurements on thin films, liquids and powders. It is equipped with different excitation continuum laser sources:

  • HeCd (325 nm)
  • Ar (different lines in the 457-514.5 nm range)
  • Ti-sapphire (tunable In the wavelength range 700-1000 nm)

and different devices for the detection of the luminescence signal:

  • Hamamatsu photomultiplier tube  for the UV and visible region
  • Infrared extended Hamamatsu photomultiplier
  • Ge detector for the near infrared region (from 800 to 1700 nm)
  • Hamamatsu InAs detector and Judson Technologies InSb detector for the infrared region (up to 3500 nm and 5500 nm, respectively)

Time-resolved measurements using an acousto-optic modulator to modulate the laser and a Stanford Research multichannel scaler to acquire the signal with a time resolution of about 30 ns. 

  • A system for time-resolved photoluminescence measurements formed by an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a ns Nd:YAG laser, a spectrograph with an intensified CCD and a linear InGaAs detector. With this setup it is possible to measure PL spectra by tuning the excitation wavelength in the 200-2000 nm range and to perform time resolved PL measurements with a time resolution of 10 ns.
  • An Oxford closed cycle He cryostat for low temperature measurements down to 10 K.

Different power supplies (both continuous and pulsed) for electroluminescence measurements.


Contact person: Dott.ssa Giorgia Franzò

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM )Nanosurf easyScan2

The Laboratory hosts a Nanosurf easyScan2 STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscope). The easyScan2 STM is a modular scanning probe system. The main parts of the basic system are the scan head, the vibration isolation platform, the EasyScan2 controller.

STM scan head.

Maximum Scan Range: 500 nm

Maximum Z-Range: 200 nm

Current set point : 0.1-100 nA in 25 pA steps

Tip voltage: ± 10 V in 5mV steps

Tip sample approach: Stick-slip piezo motor

Sample size: max 10 mm diameter

STM allows the study of metallic nanoparticles on atomically flat surfaces (Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)). An accurately cut tip enables optimal measurements, achieving atomic resolution on HOPG surface. It is possible to perform experiments in the constant current mode (the tunnelling current is kept constant by the Z-controller, and the corresponding height is recorded as a function of X,Y), or in constant height mode (the tip does not follow the surface, but the variation of the tunnelling current is directly recorded as a function of the X,Y position.


Contact person: prof. Francesco Ruffino

Atomic Force Microscopy

Atomic Force Microscopy Veeco diInnova Microscope.

The Innova offers a full complement of SPM techniques, making it ideal for applications such as surface studies in materials science, characterization of polymers, biomolecules, and semiconductors, and nanomanipulation and nanolithography. A host of standard and optional scan modes provides complete surface characterization of samples in both air and liquid:

  • Contact Mode
  • TappingMod
  • Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
  • PhaseImaging
  • Magnetic Force Microscopy
  • Electrostatic Force Microscopy
  • Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy
  • Scanning Capacitance Microscopy
  • Surface Potential Microscopy
  • Force Distance Spectroscopy
  • Current Voltage Spectroscopy
  • Nanoindentation
  • Nanolithography


  • Closed-Loop Scanner: XY > 90 µm, Z > 7.5 µm
  • Open-Loop Scanner: XY > 5 µm, Z > 1.5 µm
  • Sample size: X-45 mm x Y-45 mm x Z-18 mm
  • Motorized Z Axis Stage: Z Travel: 18mm
  • Optics: Camera: on-axis color CCD with motorized zoom
  • Field of view: 1.25mm - 0.25mm (motorized zoom, with 10x objective)
  • Resolution: <2 µm with standard 10x objective (0.75 µm with 50X)
  • Electronics: 20-bit DAC control, 100 kHz ±10v ADCs, digital feedback
  • System software: SPMLa v7 for data acquisition & analysis


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